MURALS: Coordinated Allocation and Scheduling of Multiple Resources in Real-Time Systems

Distributed real-time embedded (DRE) systems are key components of critical infrastructure including surveillance, target tracking, electric grid management, traffic control, avionics, and communications systems. They require (1) the coordinated management of multiple resources, such as the CPU, network, and disk, (2) end-to-end (E2E) real-time guarantees across the use of multiple resources, and (3) feedback control across multiple resources. None of these properties is supported as a first-class feature within the state-of-the-art real-time operating systems, but are left out as an inconvenient detail to be managed by DRE application programmers. In this work, we investigate the theory and runtime systems for coordinated allocation and scheduling of multiple resources in real-time operating systems. We are presently developing a solution approach, called the Multiple Resource Allocation and Scheduling (MURALS) framework, that aims to bridge this gap between the need for E2E timing requirements and the techniques to coordinate the use of multiple resources. This is a collaborative project with Florida State University.


  1. Kartik Gopalan and Kyoung-Don Kang, Coordinated Allocation and Scheduling of Multiple Resources in Real-time Operating Systems, In Proc. of Workshop on Operating Systems Platforms for Embedded Real-Time Applications (OSPERT), Pisa, Italy, July 2007. [pdf] [bibtex]
  2. Mark Lewandowski, Mark Stanovich, Ted Baker, Kartik Gopalan, and Andy Wang, Modeling device driver effects in real-time schedulability analysis: Study of a network driver, In Proc. of the 13th IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium (RTAS) 2007, Bellevue, WA, United States, April 2007. [pdf] [bibtex]
  3. Kartik Gopalan, Tzi-cker Chiueh, and Yow-Jian Lin, Slack Allocation Techniques for Intra-Path Load Balancing, In The Journal of High Speed Networks, Volume 16, Number 3, 2007. [pdf] [bibtex]
  4. Kartik Gopalan, Lan Huang, Gang Peng, Tzi-cker Chiueh, Yow-Jian Lin, Statistical Admission Control Using Delay Distribution Measurements, In ACM Transactions on Multimedia Computing, Communications and Applications, vol. 2(4), Pages 258-281, Nov. 2006. [pdf] [bibtex]
  5. Kartik Gopalan, Tzi-cker Chiueh, and Yow-Jian Lin, Delay Budget Partitioning to Maximize Network Resource Usage Efficiency, In Proc. of INFOCOM 2004, Hong Kong, China, March 2004. [pdf] [bibtex]
  6. Kartik Gopalan and Tzi-cker Chiueh, Multi-Resource Allocation and Scheduling for Periodic Soft Real-Time Applications, In Proc. of ACM/SPIE Multimedia Computing and Networking (MMCN2002), San Jose, CA, January 2002. [pdf] [extended] [bibtex]